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What problems can X-ray detect the welding of electronic components

Texas Instruments | 16/09/2020
The core functions of electronic products represented by smart phones come from circuit boards containing large and small electronic components. These components usually require the use of robotic equipment to accurately place them in different positions on the circuit board and complete welding; However, with the advancement of science and technology, circuit boards are filled with smaller and smaller components. Relying on robotic hands for soldering also requires solder joint inspection to ensure the normal operation of the circuit board, but the dense solder joints cannot be visualized. The welding problem is completely detected, so X-ray real-time inspection equipment is required.
Through X-ray, the solder joints of electronic components can be imaged on the computer with high resolution, and the simple software settings can be used to determine the defective welding products, and the following devices with welding problems can be screened out. At the same time, the X-ray electronic component inspection equipment Join the production line to further improve the inspection efficiency.

1. Continuous welding: the solder between adjacent solder joints is connected together
2. Weak soldering: component pins are not wetted by solder, and pads are not wetted by solder
3. Empty soldering: all the insertion holes of the substrate components are exposed, and the component pins and pads are not wetted by the solder
4. Semi-welded: The component pins and pads have been wetted, but the insertion hole is still partially exposed
5. Multi-tin: the solder at the bent part of the lead contacts the component body or the sealed end
6. Overlay soldering: too much soldering makes the component feet invisible, even the edges and corners of the component feet are invisible
7. Tin beads, tin dross: tin dross with too large diameter and length sticks to the surface of the bottom plate
8. Less tin, thin tin: the solder does not completely wet the metal holes of the double- sided board
9. Tin tip: the pin head of the component or the tin layer of the circuit board is pulled out to be pointed
10. Tin crack: there is a crack between the solder joint and the pin, or between the pad and the solder joint or the solder joint itself
11. Pinholes, voids, pores: there are pinholes or holes of different sizes in the solder joints
12. Pad warping: the separation between the wire, pad and substrate is greater than the thickness of the pad
13. Broken copper foil: the copper foil is broken in the circuit board
14. Cold welding: the surface of the solder joint is not smooth, has burrs or is granular
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