A capacitor is a combination of two conductors (electrodes) separated by an insulator (dielectric). A capacitor is an electronic component with charging and discharging energy; it can be used to hold and store charges.
The purpose of series connection of capacitors is generally a special measure taken when a capacitor of the same specification cannot be found in the maintenance and design of adjustment circuits. The series capacitor can increase the final withstand voltage value, but due to the characteristics of the capacitor, the capacity value after the series connection will decrease at this time.
After the capacitor is charged, the amount of electricity on the plate is represented by q, which is proportional to the magnitude of the voltage U applied to both ends of the plate, that is, q=CU. The proportional constant C in the formula is the capacitance of the capacitor. It can also be rewritten as C=q/U. Therefore, the capacitance can also be said to be the amount of electricity carried on the plate under the unit voltage.
In the above two formulas, the unit of electric quantity q is library, the unit of voltage is volt, and the unit of electric capacity C is farad, which is abbreviated by the symbol F. In practice, because the unit of farad is too large, micro-farad (uF) or pico-farad (PF or uuF) is generally used as the unit, and the conversion relationship between them is
1F= 10uF= 10 pF.
When capacitors are connected in series or parallel, the formula for calculating the total capacitance is just the opposite of the formula for resistors in series or parallel. When the capacitors are connected in parallel, the total capacitance is the sum of each parallel capacitance, that is, the total capacitance is:
C = C + C + C + ……
When the capacitors are connected in series, the reciprocal of the total capacitance is equal to the sum of the reciprocal of each series capacitance,
That is, 1/C=1/C+1/C+1/C+…….
If you have capacitors with suitable withstand voltage and capacitance values, it is not necessary to connect the capacitors in series or in parallel. Furthermore, considering the volume requirements of the internal structure, it is better to directly use non-series or parallel capacitors.
There are many types of capacitors, including non-polarized capacitors and polarized capacitors. Non-polar capacitors commonly include mica capacitors, polyester capacitors, glass glaze capacitors, ceramic capacitors, paper capacitors, and color ring capacitors. Polarized capacitors are also called electrolytic capacitors; they have positive and negative poles. Non-polar capacitors in series can be connected at will without polarity, but the positive and negative poles of the capacitors must be connected in series with electrolytic capacitors, otherwise the electrolytic capacitors in series may be damaged.