In 1947, John Bardeen, William Shockley, and Walter Brattain of Bell Laboratories invented the first transistor, ushering in the era of microelectronics and revolutionizing people's lives. The first invented transistor was a bipolar transistor, in the structure of which regions of semiconductor materials of different types of conductivity alternate. Unipolar (field) transistors, on the basis of which all microprocessors and most other types of chips are now created, appeared somewhat later.
However, neither bipolar nor FETs made of silicon, due to the hardness and brittleness of this material, are not well suited for the manufacture of flexible electronic devices, screens that can be rolled into a tube, or medical implants, for example. Transistors based on organic chemical compounds are ideal for such applications. The first organic field-effect transistors appeared back in 1986, but so far their speed and other characteristics are very much inferior to those of their silicon counterparts.
And recently, a group of scientists from the Technological University in Dresden (TU Dresden) made a breakthrough in the field of organic transistors. The structure of the bipolar transistor they created consists of several layers of crystalline rubrene (C42H28), with additives that provide different types of conductivity, p or n. This approach provided the transmission coefficient (gain) of the transistor in the region of 100 and higher performance. For the first time, an organic transistor can operate at frequencies in the region of one gigahertz, i.e. make about one billion switches per second.
The advent of the organic bipolar transistor opens up completely new perspectives in the field of flexible organic electronics, which can now independently perform the tasks of pre-processing data and transmitting this data using various technologies.