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Basic principles and mainstream technologies of wireless charging technology

eccn | Adafruit | 24/11/2020

Basic principles and mainstream technologies of wireless charging technology

 

The basic principle:



 

Electromagnetic induction type

 


An alternating current of a certain frequency in the primary coil, resulting in a certain current in the secondary coil by electromagnetic induction, thereby transferring energy from the transmission to the receiving end. At present, the most common charging solution USES electromagnetic induction. In fact, the electromagnetic induction solution does not have too much mystery in the technical realization. Byd, a local Company in China, applied for the patent of contactless inductive charger as early as December 2005, and used electromagnetic induction technology.

 

 

Magnetic resonance


 

Consists of energy to send equipment, and energy receiving equipment, is currently studying a technique is when two device to adjust to the same frequency, or on a specific frequency resonance, they can exchange each other's energy, by the Massachusetts institute of technology (MIT) professor of physics at Marin Soljacic led the research team used the light up the two metres away from a 60 watt light bulb lamp, and will be named the WiTricity. However, it is a pity that the coil used in this experiment has a diameter of 50cm and cannot be commercialized in a short time. If the coil size is reduced, the receiving power will naturally decrease. It will take some time for the researchers to think about how to simplify the coil size.
 

 

Radio type


This is now a relatively mature technology, similar to early ore radios, consisting mainly of microwave transmitters and microwave receivers, which can capture radio wave energy bouncing off walls and maintain a steady DC voltage while adjusting to load. All it takes is a transmitter attached to a wall plug and a "mosquito" receiver that can be attached to any low-voltage product.
 

 

Mainstream technology:


 

There are five mainstream Wireless charging standards: Qi standard, Power Matters Alliance(PMA) standard, Alliance for Wireless Power(A4WP) standard, iNPOFi technology, and wi-PO technology.
 

 

1. Qi standard

 
Qi is the first "Wireless charging" standard from the Wireless Power Consortium, the world's first standard-setting body to promote Wireless charging technology. It features both convenience and versatility. First of all, as long as products of different brands have an Qi logo, they can be charged by Qi wireless charger. Secondly, it overcomes the technical bottleneck of "universality" of wireless charging. In the near future, most digital products such as mobile phones, cameras and computers can be charged by Qi wireless charger, providing the possibility for large-scale application of wireless charging.
 
The mainstream wireless charging technology in the market mainly adopts three ways, namely electromagnetic induction, radio waves and resonance action, while Qi adopts the most mainstream electromagnetic induction technology. Chinese companies have been at the forefront of the wireless charging industry in terms of technology applications. It is reported that Qi technology is mainly used in mobile phones in China, this is the first stage, and will be developed in different categories or higher power digital products in the future. Let's wait and see.

 

 
2. Power Matters Alliance Standard

 


The Power Matters Alliance standard was initiated by Duracell Powermat, a joint venture between PROCTER & Gamble and Powermat, a wireless charging technology company, with outstanding comprehensive strength. In addition, Powermat is a supporting member of the Alliance for Wireless Power(A4WP) standard.
 
AT&T, Google, and Starbucks have joined the Power Matters Alliance (PMA). The PMA alliance is a leader in the field of wireless charging by developing wireless power standards for mobile phones and electronic devices that meet IEEE standards.
 
Duracell Powermat has introduced a WiCC charging card using the Power Matters Alliance standard. WiCC is a lap larger than SD card. It is embedded with coils, electrodes and other components for electromagnetic induction non-contact charging. The card is relatively thin and can be used by plugging it into the existing smartphone battery.

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